Monday, May 14, 2007

26th Iyar - the Ramchal

The Ramchal - Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato passed away on this day 240 years ago (and was born 300 years ago). Today his writings are amongst the most influential for mussar (Mesilat Yesharim), hashkafa (Derech Hashem and Da'at Tevunot) and kabbalah (Kelach Pitchei Chachma and Adir Bamarom). Though he died before the age of 40 he left behind a huge number of works, which also include poetry and drama. He was the Jewish equivalent of a Rennaisance man. Despite his brilliance (or because of it) he spent most of his life being attacked as a suspected Sabbatean. He also felt that the Mashiach was coming at any moment, and depending on which letter you read either thought he was the Mashiach, or one of his students was.
His clear thinking and analysis, his ability to present complex issues in a straight forward and simple manner, and his breadth of knoweldge, make the Ramchal one of the most important Jewish thinkers of the past few hundred years.
He is buried in Tiveria, next to Rabbi Akiva (giving rise to the idea that he was a reincarnation of Rabbi Akiva, sent to 'fix' the first 40 years of R' Akiva's life before he went to learn Torah).

This is from

Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto

Though Rabbi Moshe Chaim is best known for his masterly ethical work, Mesillat Yesharim, probably the most popular musar work in Jewish literature, his main focus in most of his numerous works was on the kabbalah.

Born in Padua, Italy, into a distinguished family, his genius was obvious from a very early age. Besides his complete mastery of the entire Biblical, Rabbinic, and Kabbalistic literature, he was thoroughly educated in the science and literature of the time. He was the author of three full-length plays, which have been published, in modern editions. Unfortunately, his preoccupation with kabbalah and the impact he made on the young, aroused opposition and false suspicion of Sabbatean influence. About 60 years ago, a huge cache of letters was found (published by Dr. Simon Ginzburg in 1937) which describes at length in his own words, the persecution that he endured.

Eventually, he left Italy and settled in Amsterdam. In 1740, at the age of 33, he published the Mesillat Yesharim, which contains nothing Kabbalistic. It is a moving, inspiring work describing how a thoughtful Jew may climb the ladder of purification until he attains the level of holiness. At least three English translations of this work have been made. In 1743, Reb Moshe Chaim left for Eretz Yisrael with his family, arriving in the same month that the sainted R. Chaim ben Atar died. Little is known of his life in the Holy Land and just a few years later, he and his family perished in a plague.

Though most of R. Moshe Chaim's opponents are long forgotten, his profound spirituality continues to touch and inspire Jews of all groups. Both the Gaon of Vilna and the Maggid of Mezeritch were great admirers. In recent years, largely through the efforts of the late Rabbi Chaim Friedlander, a new edition of his works have been published, including several heretofore unpublished manuscripts. And, in one of the standard texts of Modern Hebrew literature, R. Moshe Chaim is hailed as the father of Modern Hebrew literature.

I'm sure thousands of people will be at his kever today - my chevruta is going up north, so will let me know how packed it was. Here is a picture of his gravestone:

May his Soul be Bound in the Bonds of Eternal Life

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